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surface bpm. 2023





I propose the creation of a painting series under the working title "Surface BPM," serving as a continuation of my exploration into themes of limitation, restriction, and repetition. My inquiry delves into both theoretical and scientific concepts surrounding movement, motion, and speed. The core of my artistic intention involves propelling the paint mixture across a surface, aligning with the silence between the ticks of a metronome. Executing this with a deliberate and steady pressure, each completed painting will manifest as a product of adherence to specific beats per minute, ranging from 20 BPM to 300 BPM, within the confines of a 2D surface area measuring 150x100cm.

I categorize the tempos, progressing from slow to quick, as 'knead,' 'stroke,' 'sweep,' 'swipe,' 'slice,' 'dash,' 'strike,' and 'attack.' Movement and rhythm assume pivotal roles in maintaining a seamless continuity of tone in my work. The term 'tempo rubato,' borrowed from Italian, encapsulates the discretionary timing I employ to exert control. However, adherence to a precise beat introduces additional constraints and limitations. In my preparatory exploration, I've observed that as the tempo escalates, the manipulation of paint during silences synchronizes with the beat. At 70 BPM, the distinction between moving during the silence or on the beat becomes ambiguous. At the peak of 300 BPM, the velocity becomes so rapid that my focus shifts towards ensuring stability in my movements and maintaining a consistent pressure, rendering evaluation challenging.



Surface BPM. extremely slow (knead) at 20 BPM

Surface BPM. very slow (stroke) at 40 BPM

Surface BPM. rather slow at (sweep) at 60 BPM seconds per minute

Surface BPM. at ease (swipe) at 70 BPM

Surface BPM. heart-rate sweet spot (slice) at 85 BPM 

Surface BPM. extremely fast (strike) at 140 BPM

Surface BPM. extremely fast (attack) at 250 BPM

Surface BPM. extremely fast (attack) at 300 BPM



Link to Online Metronome:




If my actions are guided by precise time measurements, how does this rhythmic tempo influence the character of my artistic strokes? I've come to realize that within the constraints of limited, refined factors lies the potential for infinite variations. By aligning my movements with beats per minute, the act of mark-making becomes contained, yet the outcomes remain boundless. How will viewers respond? Will their perception resonate with the rhythm? Might they experience synesthesia, even though my intention isn't to create a musical composition? I'm intrigued by whether the optimal tempo, akin to a heartbeat, induces satisfaction or relaxation. Does 20 beats per minute instill calmness or impatience? Is 200 beats per minute an assault on their senses or a hypnotic experience?

Embarking on this challenging path, where time eludes scientific comprehension, is both daunting and exhilarating. I find excitement in delving into the questions posed by Eduardo Chillida, echoing his concerns about time in his presentation "Preguntas." This academic discourse, delivered during his honorary doctorate ceremony at the University of Alicante in 1994, has inspired me. [online] available at I am particularly drawn to Chillida's contemplation of how the 'present' in time lacks dimension yet exists. I am also eager to explore why Joan Miró insisted on preserving his studio in Taller Sert untouched—a frozen moment in time, simultaneously unchanging and ever-evolving.



Concepts which are intrinsic to the investigation are:


movement | momentum | inertia | mass | velocity | acceleration | infinity | force | friction resistance motion | time | flow | speed | rest | space | pressure | weight | matter | intention action | rhythm | tempo | push | pull | repetition | limitation | restriction | accident  assessment | reassessment | decision.


I will delve into Gilles Deleuze's exploration of Nietzsche's philosophy in "Difference and Repetition" (Gilles Deleuze, Paul Patton - Columbia University Press, 1995-05-18, New York, 1995), particularly focusing on the concept of the Eternal Return. This philosophical notion posits that time perpetually repeats itself, with identical events recurring in the same manner, endlessly. According to Nietzsche, "the eternal recurrence is the denial of any absolute beginning, any creation, and any god."

The term "exactly" emerges as a pivotal point of contention in my analysis. It challenges my logical reasoning, suggesting that if time repeats, true duplication becomes impossible. Nietzsche's stance, however, implies the feasibility of duplication. The denial of an absolute beginning aligns with my conceptualization of eternity, which I perceive not as a linear construct but as infinitely directional. If eternity can be envisioned in a perceived future, could it not also extend to a perceived past or in infinite directions? Does this perception have a central point?

Moreover, I contemplate whether the rejection or inclusion of a god in this context is an objective or subjective matter of faith. Is it conceivable for the absence of a definite beginning and the presence of a god to coexist? These questions form the basis of my inquiry into the intricacies of Nietzsche's Eternal Return and its implications for the nature of time, duplication, and the divine.



Dr. Stuart Clark, Astrophysicist and Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.

In May I was in dialogue with Dr. Clark on the theory of inertia and movement. 

Professor Anders Rydberg, Uppsala University, Department of Engineering Sciences.

Professor Rydberg’s experiments on the wave-like nature of something called a Rydberg state reveal a way to measure time that doesn't require a precise starting point.

Father Elrod.



Eduardo Chillida: “Isn't the limit the true protagonist of space, like the present, another limit, is the protagonist of time? I don't represent, I ask.”  “Preguntas”, his academic speech read on the occasion of his investiture as doctor honoris causa by the University of Alicante in 1994.

Juan Uslé: “Soñé  que Revelabas” “…discontinuous brushstrokes produced by intermittent contact: I move the brush and press down until the next heartbeat occurs. I try to follow a sequential rhythm, marked by the beating of my pulse.” John YauIn in conversation with Juan Uslé. [online] available at

Rudolf Laban: Laban movement analysis (documenting LMA), the method and language for describing, visualizing, interpreting motion and movement. 

Friedrich Nietzsche and Gilles Deleuze. "Difference and Repetition" and the question of the Eternal Return.

Isaac Newton: Notions of time. A continuous magnitude, a continuum generated by motion. 

Heraclitus of Ephesus. Change and Flow.

Augustine of Hippo: An Analysis of the Concept of Time in the Confessions, Book 11 by Augustine of Hippo.[online] available at

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